Utilisation de profils génomiques pour le développement d'interventions nutritionnelles personnalisées pour le diabète et les facteurs de risques associés

 

Iwona Rudkowska

Centre de recherche du Centre hospitalier de l'Université Laval

 

Domaine : nutrition et métabolisme

Programme chercheurs-boursiers - Junior 1

Concours 2014-2015

More than 9 million Canadians are living with diabetes or prediabetes. Type 2 diabetes is a metabolic disorder that is characterized by high blood glucose due to insulin resistance and relative insulin deficiency. Risk factors associated with type 2 diabetes include: high blood lipids, high blood pressure, high oxidative stress and inflammation which increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. Dietary modification is a key component in diabetes and management of its risk factors. However, we have shown that some individuals respond better or worse to various dietary treatments.

This may be partly due to genetic variability in the population. It is therefore essential to understand genetic backgrounds to predict the responses to dietary treatments. Using genomic approaches, this research program intends to identify molecular markers to develop nutritional recommendations tailored to the specific needs of an individual at risk. The three specific streams of this research program are: (1) a nutrigenomic approach to investigate the benefits of dairy product consumption in type 2 diabetes; (2) the analysis of genes-diet interactions on the variability of oxidative stress; and (3) an investigation of omega-3 fatty acids and the effects on cardiovascular risk factors.

Therefore, the information generated by this research program will enable the development of more effective nutrition interventions in the prevention and treatment of diabetes and its risk factors, and therefore reduce the economic costs associated with this disease.