Cervical cancer remains frequent in regions where prevention is not available. Fortunately, the natural history of cervical cancer makes it an ideal candidate for prevention by vaccination and screening. However, the costs and health resources needs associated with these interventions, require that we carefully consider potential alternatives that could be more efficient. In this context, I propose a research program focused around 2 research projects. The first one will recruit on women after treatment for high-grade cervical precancerous lesions. We will compare the ability of a new test (HPV test) to identify treatment failures, in comparison to the usual follow-up. If the HPV is found to be a better option, women will need shorter follow-up in specialized clinics, with less invasive procedures. The second project will investigate if it could be possible to ensure a good protection against HPV infections (the virus causing cervical cancer) by giving 2 doses of the vaccine, as opposed to the standard 3-dose regimen.