Implication des voies métaboliques dans la pathogénèse des maladies valvulaires cardiaques

Chercheurs-boursiers- Senior | Concours 2012-2013


Patrick Mathieu

Centre de recherche de l'Institut universitaire de cardiologie et de pneumologie de Québec

 

Domaine : Santé circulatoire et respiratoire

The goal of my research activity is to understand the processes by which heart valves mineralize. It should be underlined that mineralization of heart valve is one major problem, for which physicians have no pharmacological tool to prevent or to treat patients afflicted by those disorders. With the aging of the population and the changes in the mosaic of risk factors, namely the important rise of obesity in our modern societies, we can expect that a high number of people will be afflicted by heart valve disorders, of which aortic stenosis (AS) is certainly the most important. One of the main objectives of my laboratory is, therefore, to investigate the role of a family of enzyme called the ectonucleotidase in the development of AS. The work realized over the last several years has shed the light on important mechanisms promoting the mineralization of the aortic valve, a crucial process in the development of AS. To this effect, our work indicates that pharmacological inhibition of the econucleotidase prevents the development of AS in experimental models. Hence, these promising findings may, in a near future, open new therapeutic opportunities for patients with AS. In addition, another objective of my lab is to understand the mineralization process of bioprothetic heart valves (BPs), which are often used in surgery for patients afflicted by terminal heart valve pathologies. It is important to highlight that BPs have several advantages, but the main drawback is that their longevity is impeded by a progressive mineralization, which promotes the failure of these prostheses. We have identifies that obesity and diabetes are two important factors contributing to the mineralization of BPs. Thus, one objective is to find out key processes underlying these observations. Incidentally, considering a prevalence of 2-5% for AS, these investigations may have important impact.