Étude de la cytotoxicité dépendante des anticorps (ADCC) chez la femme enceinte infectée par le virus de l'hépatite C

 

Kimberly Ann Milton McSween

Centre hospitalier universitaire Ste-Justine

 

Domaine : Maladies infectieuses et immunitaires

Programme : Formation de maîtrise

Concours 2016-2017

Partenaire:

Fondation des Étoiles

170 million individuals are infected by the hepatitis C virus (HCV) worldwide. This infection makes them susceptible to chronic diseases, like cirrhosis and cancer. HCV is transmitted by exposure to contaminated body fluids. Moreover, the virus can be transmitted from mother to child during pregnancy or child birth. People who carry HCV, even children, are sometimes capable of getting rid of the virus by mounting what is called an "immune response". This does not happen often in pregnant women infected with HCV: they even sometimes become sicker after giving birth.

This project aims to determine the implication of a precise immune response, ADCC (antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity), in the resolution of HCV infection in pregnant women. ADCC is based on three components: a cell infected by HCV, a type of white blood cells named "Natural Killer cells" (NK), which have the ability to release substances toxic for infected cells, and antibodies directed against HCV. When these three components are present, cells infected with HCV are killed. To measure ADCC in the laboratory, these conditions must be recreated: cultured cells are modified to express HCV proteins at their surface.

These target cells are then incubated with antibodies from the patients and NK cells. ADCC is finally detected by measuring mortality among target cells using state of the art measuring techniques.