Tolérance à la maladie et immunité entraînée dans les infections pulmonaires

 

Maziar Divangahi

Institut de recherche du Centre universitaire de santé McGill

 

Domaine : maladies infectieuses et immunitaires

Programme Chercheurs-boursiers - Senior

Concours 2019-2020

Globally, respiratory infections cause more than 4 million deaths per year, with influenza and tuberculosis (TB) in particular being major causes of mortality and morbidity in which present new challenges to clinicians who are left with no available therapeutic interventions. The lung is the only organ that is constantly and directly exposed to the environment, while we are breathing 7-8 liters of air per minute. Thus, pulmonary immune responses must be tightly regulated to effectively eliminate invading microorganisms that reach the distal airways while minimizing immunopathology. Pulmonary macrophages (PM) patrolling the airways are the first immune leukocytes to encounter the majority of pulmonary pathogens and their initial response to infection is critical to "set the tone" and orchestrate an effective immune response. The function of macrophages is a central determinant mediating the switch from homeostatic to anti-microbial. Thus, it is not surprising that many pathogens have evolved different strategies that target PM and allow them to evade both innate and adaptive immunity.

Therefore, harnessing the biological properties of macrophages by novel immunomodulatory methods will allow for improved diagnostic, preventative, and therapeutic strategies for TB and influenza. In demonstrating that the protective circuit of PM in both influenza and TB infection, we hope that we are paving the way for developing novel immunotherapy or vaccine for these devastating diseases.