Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer related death in the world. Surgery is the cornerstone of curative treatment but is associated with a high rate of infectious complications including pneumonia. There is emerging clinical data to suggest that complications after surgery may increase cancer recurrence. This present study investigates the relationship between bacterial infection and cancer progression, with a particular focus on specialized bacteria recognition proteins, the Toll Like Receptors. Results from this proposal will identify Toll Like Receptors as a potential target in the treatment and prevention of cancer progression.