Épidémiologie de la transmission virale: le cas des virus du papillome humain (HPV) transmis périnatalement et des virus d'herpès humain (HHV) transmis par l'entremise des produits sanguins

 

Helen Trottier

Centre hospitalier universitaire Sainte-Justine

 

Domaine : maladies infectieuses et immunitaires

Programme chercheurs-boursiers - Junior 2

Concours 2014-2015

This research program is focused on the epidemiology of viral transmission and consists of two main themes, namely 1) perinatal transmission of human papillomavirus (HPV) and 2) transmission of human herpes viruses (HHV), specifically Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), through transfusion. The incidence of HPV-associated diseases, such as squamous cell carcinoma, has increased in children in recent years, possibly due to an increase in HPV prevalence. Recent evidence suggests that the newborns are exposed perinatally to HPV, although no reliable exposure rate has been proposed.

This research program includes several projects with the ultimate goal of furthering our understanding of the rate and determinants of perinatal transmission of HPV and HPV persistence in infants. These projects also aim to provide important data regarding the impact of HPV placental infection on pregnancy outcome and a better understanding of HPV antibody dynamics between mother and children. The study of HPV perinatal transmission is a research priority in the field of HPV. This program will provide data to improve the comprehension of the full natural history of HPV. Furthermore, the risk of viral transmission through transfusion continues to be a concern.

The latter research program will also focus on safety of blood product transfusion with regard to transmission of several viruses. More specifically, the risk of transmission of HHVs through transfusion will be studied through several projects. These HHVs, all of which are prevalent in blood donors, are associated with debilitating diseases, particularly in immune suppressed graft recipients who often require large volumes of blood products during the peri-transplant period. The results of this research program will have a direct bearing on our ability to obtain relevant and accurate epidemiologic data that will inform decision makers in terms of defining new policies regarding safety of blood product transfusion and prevention of infection.