Effet des techniques extracorporelles en surdosage

 

Marc Ghannoum

Centre de recherche de l'Hôpital du Sacré-Coeur de Montréal

 

Domaine : santé des populations

Programme chercheurs-boursiers-cliniciens - Junior 1

Concours 2017-2018

The optimal treatment of poisonings is still unknown. Dialysis and related treatments can in some cases detoxify a poisoned patient. Unfortunately, there is no convincing study to assess if these treatments may improve survival. My first project will review a huge American databank (> 2 million cases / year) and will compare a group of poisoned patients who received dialysis for aspirin overdose with another similar group that did not receive it.

Poisonings to washer fluid (ethylene glycol) are still common in North America. As little as 3 sips can cause death if left untreated. Dialysis treatments are often necessary to detoxify a patient following ingestion. Unfortunately, its effectiveness in saving lives and removing the poison has never been reviewed systematically. I propose, as a second project to make a literature review and meta-analysis on the efficacy of dialysis in cases of ethylene glycol poisoning, which means a statistical approach combining the results of several independent studies in order to draw an overall conclusion. The results of this study will help to develop international guidelines for clinical management.

The third project follows a recently completed study that reviewed and improved calculation frequently used by clinicians (the osmolar gap). The osmolar gap is a simple and inexpensive test that tracks exposure to toxic alcohols. The proposed study will check the value of the osmolar gap to estimate the concentration of blood alcohol considered toxic dosages (methanol and ethylene glycol).