Application de la méthode des éléments finis à la modélisation en neuroscience: modélisation de l'électro-diffusion dans les épines dendritiques et les noeuds de Ranvier, modélisation de la régulation volumique des neurones, modélisation des enregistrements électriques dans les expériences d'opto-génétique

 

Nicolas Doyon

Centre de recherche de l'institut universitaire en santé mentale de Québec [CRIUSMQ]

 

Domaine : neurosciences, santé mentale et toxicomanies

Programme chercheurs-boursiers - Junior 1

Concours 2017-2018

Understanding the humain brain is essential in the fight against many psychiatric diseases which soci-economic impacts are unfortunately on the rise. While experimental data is acquired as an accelerated pace due to new techniques able to record neuron activity with increased resoluton, the development and resolution of mathematical models is becoming essential to integrate this data into a comprehensive theoretical framework essential to better understand its relevance and predict the outcome of therapeutic strategies. The aim of this research pogramm if to gather theoricians and experimentalists in order to develop and experimentally validate numerical models to invesitigate different questions of which we here give two examples

  1. Loss of inhibition in the central nervous system is involved in numerous diseases ranging from neuropathic pain to schizophrenia and epilepsy. This loss of inhibition is often unrelated to a decrease in the activity of inhibitory synapses themselves but rather to a change in ionic concentraion (intracellular chloirde accumulation) which compromises the efficacy of inhibitory synapses. The mechanism through which inhibition becomes less efficent is critical to the success of therapeutical strategies. We will build mathematical models allowing to virtually test different therapeutical strategies to restore compromised inhibition.
  2. Early detection of diseases such as schizophrenia and Alzheimer disease is necessary to improve the life trajectories of patients. Holographic microscopy is a novel technique able to measure changes in the way cells regulate their volumes and the study of volumic regulation in cells from persons at risk may help predict the trajectory of diseases. We will develop mathematical models relating holographic microscopy measurements to the biophysical properties of the cell.  This will allow to better understand the relevance of these measurements.